The date selections in the Configure Report page is always based on the current accounting month. If today's date is November 10, 2017 but your current accounting month is July, selecting the option for 'This Month' in the Date Range section will give you July transactions.
How to determine which month is the current accounting month:
The upper right corner of your screen will display the current accounting month.
How to increment the current accounting month:
Chapter 12 of your User Guide gives excellent detail about Performing End-of-Period Processing. You may find the User Guide on the Ledger & Payables Dashboard.
Once you have completed the End-of-Period Processing and you are ready to close the period, go into Ledger and Payables, Process, the third and second items from the bottom are End of Month and End of Year. You may increment your period by selecting those options as appropriate. Note: When you are in the last period of your fiscal year, you will not close that month but instead select the option to close the year.
Once you have closed each month until your accounting month matches the current month, you may select the option for 'this month' on the Configure Report page, and you will get the current transactions.